What Is a MEMS Sensor?

As a key device for acquiring information, MEMS sensors have played a huge role in the miniaturization of various sensing devices. They have been used in space satellites, launch vehicles, aerospace equipment, aircraft, various vehicles, oil and gas, mining, special medical and consumer electronics products. It has been widely used in other fields. Ericco has been committed to the research of high-performance MEMS gyroscopes.

The typical application of MEMS sensor is as follows:

MEMS sensor

With the development of electronic technology, the application fields of MEMS are becoming more and more extensive, from the earliest industrial and military aviation applications to ordinary civilian and consumer markets. In smart phones, MEMS sensors provide a wide range of applications in sound performance, scene switching, gesture recognition, orientation positioning, and temperature/pressure/humidity sensors; in automobiles, MEMS sensors rely on airbag collision sensors and tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS). And vehicle stability control; in the medical field, a miniature insulin injection pump has been successfully manufactured through MEMS sensor research, and heart bypass transplantation and artificial cell tissue have become practical treatment methods that can be used in reality; in wearable applications, MEMS sensors can achieve motion tracking, heart rate measurement, etc.

Application of automotive electronics MEMS sensor

The automotive electronics industry is considered to be the promoter of the first wave of application climax of MEMS sensors. The rapid development of MEMS sensor applications in automobiles is mainly benefited from the comprehensive introduction of automobile safety regulations by governments (such as requiring all automobiles to adopt TPMS systems) and automobile intelligence. The development trend of globalization.

MEMS sensor

On average, every car in the world contains 10 sensors. In high-end cars, about 25 to 40 MEMS sensors are used. The better the car, the more MEMS are used. There are more than 70 MEMS in BMW740i cars.

MEMS sensors can meet the requirements of harsh automotive environments, high reliability, accuracy, and low cost. Its application direction and market demand include vehicle anti-lock braking system (ABS), electronic body stability program (ESP), electronically controlled suspension (ECS), electric handbrake (EPB), slope start assist (HAS), tire pressure monitoring (EPMS), engine anti-shake, vehicle inclination measurement and car heartbeat detection, etc.

At present, pressure sensors, accelerometers, gyroscopes and flow sensors together account for 99% of automotive MEMS systems. An Australian company uses Ericco’s MEMS gyroscope ER-MG-067 in the vehicle’s automated navigation system to enhance vehicle performance.

Types of MEMS sensors

MEMS pressure sensor

MEMS pressure sensors are the most used sensors in automobiles. At least 18 automotive applications have promoted the growth of pressure sensors, including: tire pressure, brake sensors in electronic stability control systems, side airbags, and engine control related to increasingly stringent emission standards, atmospheric pressure and exhaust gas recirculation pressure. This sensor uses monocrystalline silicon as a material, and uses MEMS technology to fabricate a force-sensitive diaphragm in the middle of the material. Then, impurities are diffused on the diaphragm to form four strain resistors, and then the strain resistors are connected by a Wheatstone bridge. Circuit to obtain high sensitivity. MEMS pressure sensors for vehicles have several common forms such as capacitive, piezoresistive, differential transformer, and surface acoustic wave.

MEMS sensor

MEMS accelerometer

The principle of MEMS accelerometer is based on Newton's classical laws of mechanics. It is usually composed of a suspension system and a detection mass. The acceleration detection is achieved through the offset of the micro-silicon mass block. It is mainly used in automobile airbag systems, anti-skid systems, and car navigation systems. And anti-theft systems, in addition to capacitive and piezoresistive types, MEMS accelerometers also have piezoelectric, tunnel current, resonance, and thermocouple types. Among them, capacitive MEMS accelerometers have the characteristics of high sensitivity and minimal temperature influence, and are the mainstream products in MEMS micro accelerometers. Ericco’s accelerometer is also one of the components of IMU inertial measurement unit, which is mainly used as the acceleration of XYZ axis in three directions so as to cooperate with the gyroscope and solve the correct Angle needed by the north finder.

Micro gyroscope

Micro gyroscope is a kind of angular rate sensor, mainly used for GPS signal compensation of car navigation and car chassis control system. There are mainly vibration type and rotor type. The most widely used is the vibrating gyroscope, which uses the Coriolis effect generated when a vibrating mass of monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon is rotated by a base to sense the angular velocity.

For example, when a car is turning, the system uses a gyroscope to measure the angular velocity to indicate whether the steering wheel is in place, and actively applies appropriate brakes on the inner or outer wheels to prevent the car from leaving the lane. Usually, it forms an active control with a low accelerometer. system. Ericco's MEMS Gyroscope ER-MG2-100, ER-MG2-300/400 and ER-MG-067 can be used in vehicle navigation and vehicle chassis control systems.

MEMS sensor

MEMS flow sensor

The MEMS flow sensor is based on the traditional thermal film anemometer principle and uses advanced film technology to process stable film resistors onto a thin film. Due to the use of MEMS processing, on the one hand, the sensor response time is shortened, and on the other hand, the front and rear bridge circuits are used to determine the flow direction of the fluid, thereby further measuring the return flow.

In order to prevent temperature changes from affecting the measurement accuracy, two thermistors are used in the sensor to compensate the temperature of the front and rear axles. The flow sensor is mainly used to detect the air intake and fuel injection volume of the engine, so as to control the air-fuel ratio near the optimal value. In addition, the flow sensor is also widely used in exhaust gas recirculation, anti-skid drive, brake anti-lock braking system and electric Control suspension and many other aspects.

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Related Questions

1.How to Distinguish MEMS Accelerometer and MEMS Gyroscope Correctly?

2.How to Improve the Sensitivity of MEMS Gyroscope?

3.MEMS Gyroscope Accelerate Development of Autonomous Driving Technology

4.Application of MEMS gyroscope in automobile automatic driving

5.Application of MEMS IMU in Automobile

6.How to choose a MEMS accelerometer?

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