History of the development of gyroscopes
The earliest gyroscope is based on Newton’s classical mechanics principle, using the high-speed rotating gyroscope rotor to measure and calculate the rotation Angle rate of the moving carrier. After more than one hundred years of development, people have developed a variety of gyroscopes with different measuring accuracy based on different measuring principles. According to different measurement principles and inventions, the development of inertia technology is usually divided into four generations:
The first generation: Based on the principles of Newton classical mechanics, typical representatives are electrostatic gyroscopes and dynamically-tuned gyroscopes
The second generation: Based on the Sagnac effect, the typical representatives are laser gyro and fiber optic gyro
The third generation: Based on Coriolis vibration effect and micro-nano processing technology, the typical representative is the hemispherical resonant gyroscope and MEMS gyroscope
The fourth generation: Based on modern quantum mechanics technology, typical representatives are nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscopes and atomic interference gyroscopes
Application of MEMS gyroscope
MEMS gyroscope is the representative of the third generation of gyroscopes, MEMS with the rise of micro-mechanical electronic systems (MEMS) and other disciplines, but also based on Coriolis vibration effect and micro-nano processing technology, MEMS gyroscope began to appear. The ER-MG2-50/100 as high-precision gyroscope in MEMS gyroscope has the characteristics of small size, light weight, strong environmental adaptability, low price, easy mass production, etc ,which solves the shortcomings of the first and second generation gyroscopes with large volume and mass and high cost, and with the continuous improvement of accuracy and stability.It occupies an important position in the gyroscope market and has been the first to get a large number of applications in the automotive and consumer electronics fields. With the further improvement of performance, the application of MEMS gyroscope has also been extended to industrial, aerospace and other fields, making it greatly expanded in the field of inertial system application.
Application fields of MEMS gyroscopes
① Unmanned system
Unmanned system is unmanned control system with a certain degree of autonomy and self-governance, which is a combination of artificial intelligence, robotics and real-time control and decision-making systems through the use of inertial devices and agile inertial navigation technology, ER-MG2-300/400 can provide accurate speed, position and attitude information for unmanned system. Thus it can achieve accurate navigation positioning and attitude control. The unmanned system includes a variety of unmanned platforms such as drones, unmanned vehicles, unmanned ships, unmanned underwater vehicles and robots, among which drones are the most widely used.
② Surveying and mapping
With the completion of the construction of surveying and mapping equipment systems such as satellite navigation and positioning system platform, modern surveying and mapping reference system infrastructure, aerospace remote sensing image rapid acquisition platform, advanced field surveying and mapping technology equipment, geographic information data processing technology and equipment, and geographic information data exchange and transmission service network, the surveying and mapping industry has entered the stage of information surveying and mapping. ER-MG2-50/100 is an important support of information surveying and mapping system. In addition to the traditional surveying and mapping data, other modern surveying and mapping methods need the support of the flight control system or optical stabilization system based on the high-precision inertial measurement unit, so as to facilitate the acquisition of clear images in the dynamic process of the vehicle.
③ Resource exploration
In resource exploration, it is mainly used to measure the trajectory of the well and the actual position of the bit, so as to ensure that the well depth reaches the predetermined position. With the increasing complexity of exploration and development of petroleum resources, oil inclinometer with higher accuracy and more reliable performance is needed. The application of inertia technology can meet this demand. By using high-precision and high-resolution ER-MG2-300/400 to accurately measure engineering parameters such as inclination angle, azimuth angle and tool face angle during drilling, real-time monitoring of well trajectory and bit position can be realized.
④ Communication – in motion
Communication in motion refers to the dynamic adjustment of the antenna through the antenna base, so that the platform can maintain a relatively stable state with the communication satellite, so as to ensure the communication quality. Mobile communication is divided into four categories: vehicle, ship, airborne and automatic portable station products, mainly used in emergency communication, mobile office, TV live broadcast, aviation broadband, merchant Marine communications, yachts, fishing boats and other fields. As an inertial sensor, ER-MG2-50/100 is the core component of dynamic communication. During the movement, the azimuth, elevation angle and polarization angle of the antenna are automatically controlled according to the inertial measurement information, so as to ensure that the beam center of the antenna always points accurately to the satellite, so that the system can operate stably under static, high-speed and dynamic conditions, with high mobility and flexibility. It has a certain market size.