Gyroscopic theodolite, is a gyroscope and theodolite through the connecting mechanism for the determination of true north azimuth of the instrument.
Gyroscopic theodolite, is a gyroscope and theodolite through the connecting mechanism for the determination of true north azimuth of the instrument.It USES the physical character of the gyroscope (fixed axis and precession), the metal belt hanging downward move of gyro sensitive to sensitive level of earth rotation angular velocity component, under the influence of gravity, produce a northward into the dynamic torque, make gyroscope spindle meridian plane reciprocating swing around the earth, so as to determine true north azimuth.Gyro theodolite is widely used in mine surveying, engineering surveying and military surveying, and is also an important supporting equipment for radar antenna orientation, UAV flight orientation, artillery and long-range weapon launch orientation.
The gyro theodolite consists of a gyroscope and a theodolite.The theodolite was invented by the British in 1730. After a long process of the metal theodolite, it was developed into an optical theodolite in the 1920s, and has entered the stage of electronic theodolite since the 1960s. Now it is quite advanced and developing towards the direction of intelligence.Gyroscope is the main body of gyro theodolite, leading the development process of the whole machine.
According to orientation accuracy, gyro theodolites can be divided into engineering class (orientation accuracy beyond 10 “) and precision class (orientation accuracy within 10 “).The ER-GT-02 orientation accuracy ≤3.6 “belongs to the precision level, the use of integrated fuselage design (built-in battery) not only has low locking, automatic zero observation, automatic north finding, automatic limit position, wide temperature compensation and other functions, but also has strong anti-interference ability, high stability. In addition to the speed type once used by the United Kingdom and the United States, the orientation principle is generally used pendulum. The gyroscope and theodolite are used as a whole, and there are two types of combination methods: underhanging and overhead.Orientation principle in addition to the British and American once used the speed type, generally with pendulum type.The gyroscope and theodolite are used as a whole, and there are two types of combination: downhanging type and upper frame type. Downhanging instruments were developed in the 1950s, and almost all precision grade and highly automated instruments belong to this class.
The gyroscope rotating around its symmetry axis at high speed has two important characteristics: first, it is fixed axis, without the action of external torque, the direction of the gyroscope axis always points to the initial constant direction; Second, it is precession, under the action of the external torque, the gyroscope axis produces precession, and moves close to the vertical plane where the rotation axis of the external torque is located along the shortest path until the two axes are in the same vertical plane. The true meridian is the intersection between the plane of the Earth’s axis of rotation (the meridian plane) and the Earth’s surface, so that the true meridian of the ground (true north direction) is in the same plumb plane as the Earth’s axis of rotation. When the gyroscope gyro rotates at a high speed and its axis is not in the plumb plane of the true meridian on the ground, the gyroscope axis generates precession under the action of the earth’s rotation torque and is close to the plumb plane where the true meridian and the earth’s rotation axis are located, so the gyroscope axis can automatically indicate the true north direction. Under the action of inertia, the axis of the free gyroscope rotating at high speed does not rest in the true north direction, but swings left and right in the true north direction. The maximum amplitude of the east-west oscillation of the gyro axis is called the reversal point. Therefore, the gyroscope is combined with the theodolite, and the theodolite is used to track the east-west reversal point of the cursor, read the level dial and take its average value, so as to obtain the true north direction