Housing (fixed to the measured object), reference quality, sensitive components, signal output, etc. Accelerometers require a certain range and accuracy, sensitivity, etc. These requirements are often contradictory to some extent. Accelerometers based on different principles have different ranges (from a few g to hundreds of thousands of g), and their sensitivities to sudden acceleration frequencies are also different. The principles underlying common accelerometers are:
① The reference mass is connected to the housing by a spring (see figure). The relative displacement between it and the housing reflects the magnitude of the acceleration component. This signal is output as a voltage through a potentiometer;
② The reference mass is fixedly connected with the elastic thin rod and the shell. The dynamic load caused by the acceleration deforms the rod. The magnitude of the deformation is induced by the strain resistance wire. The output is an electrical signal proportional to the size of the acceleration disc;
③ The reference mass is fixedly connected to the housing through the piezoelectric element. The dynamic load of the mass generates pressure on the piezoelectric element. The piezoelectric element outputs an electrical signal proportional to the pressure or acceleration component:
④ The reference mass is connected to the case by a spring and placed inside the coil. The displacement reflecting the magnitude of the acceleration component changes the inductance of the coil, thereby outputting an electrical signal proportional to the acceleration. In addition, there are servo-type accelerometers, in which a feedback loop is introduced to improve the accuracy of the measurement. In order to measure the acceleration vector in a plane or space, two or three accelerometers are required, each measuring an acceleration component.
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