Application

The Difference Between Gyroscope, Compass, IMU, MEMS

Define differences in principle, composition, and application

Compass: The compass is an instrument used by the aircraft to measure the direction of movement and to assist in positioning.

Magnetic compass: The magnetic compass can be seen as a compass.

Gyro compass: Gyro compass uses a power-driven gyroscope， is a variety of instruments or devices made using the dynamic characteristics of the gyroscope, the gyrocompass uses an electrically driven gyroscope for navigation and flight objects as direction reference to find and track the geographical meridian plane of three degrees of freedom gyroscope. The outer ring axis is straight, the rotor axis is placed horizontally in the meridian plane, and the positive end points north. Its center of gravity deviates from the center of support down or up along the vertical axis. When the rotor axis deviates from the meridian plane, it also deviates from the horizontal plane and generates a heavy moment to make the gyrocompass screw into the meridian plane. This gyrocompass using heavy moment is called pendulum compass. In the 21st century, the electronically controlled gyrocompass was developed to use an automatic control system to replace the gravity pendulum, and to create a platform compass that can indicate both the horizontal plane and the meridian plane.is often used in electric compass.

Q: Can it be understood that the electric compass is a type of gyroscope?

A: You can’t say that, you have reversed the inclusive relationship between the two. The gyroscope is an important part of the electric compass. Just as a turbocharged engine is an important part of a fuel vehicle, it cannot be said that a fuel vehicle is a turbocharged engine.

Gyroscope: It is a device for measuring the angular motion of an object. By measuring the offset of the gyroscope’s dual-axis base point in different motion states, the horizontal, vertical, pitch, acceleration, and heading azimuth of the object can be calibrated.The principle is that the direction indicated by the axis of rotation of a rotating object does not change when it is not affected by external forces. According to this principle, it is used to maintain direction, and the thing produced is called a gyroscope. Gyroscope at work to give it a force, so that it quickly rotate up, generally can reach hundreds of thousands of revolutions per minute, can work for a long time. The direction indicated by the axis is then read in a variety of ways and the data signal is automatically transmitted to the control system.

The gyroscope can not only be used as an indication instrument, but more importantly, it can be used as a sensitive element in the automatic control system and can be used as a signal sensor. According to the needs, gyroscopic instruments can provide accurate signals such as orientation, level, position, speed and acceleration, so that the driver or the automatic navigator can control the aircraft, ship or space shuttle and other navigational bodies to fly according to a certain route, and in the guidance of missiles, satellite vehicles or space exploration rockets and other navigational bodies. These signals are directly used to complete the attitude control and orbit control of the vehicle. As a stabilizer, gyroscopic instruments can make the train travel on the monorail, can reduce the sway of the ship in the wind and waves, can make the camera mounted on the aircraft or satellite relative to the ground stability. As a precision test instrument, gyro instruments can provide accurate orientation reference for surface facilities, mine tunnels, underground railways, oil drilling and missile silos.

IMU is an inertial measurement unit. Include a gyroscope in the IMU. It consists of three single-axis accelerometers and three single-axis gyroscopes, which are included in the IMU. The accelerometer detects the acceleration signals of the independent three axes of the carrier coordinate system, while the gyroscope detects the angular velocity signals of the carrier relative to the navigation coordinate system. After processing these signals, the attitude of the object can be solved. IMU provides a relative positioning information, its role is to measure the movement of the object relative to the starting point of the route, so it does not provide you with specific location information.

MEMS is an acronym for Micro Electro Mechanical Systems. It refers to a high-tech device with a size of several millimeters or even smaller, and its internal structure is generally in the order of micrometers or even nanometers, and it is an independent intelligent system. It is mainly composed of sensors, actuators (actuators) and micro-energy sources. MEMS involves a variety of disciplines and engineering technologies such as physics, semiconductors, optics, electronic engineering, chemistry, materials engineering, mechanical engineering, medicine, information engineering, and biological engineering. , system biotechnology, synthetic biology and microfluidic technology and other fields have opened up a wide range of uses. Common products include MEMS accelerometers, MEMS microphones, micro motors, micro pumps, micro vibrators, MEMS pressure sensors, MEMS gyroscopes, MEMS humidity sensors, etc. and their integrated products.

MEMS stands for Micro Electromechanical System, Micro Electromechanical System. MEMS is an independent intelligent system that can be mass-produced.MEMS stands for Micro Electromechanical System. Refers to the size of a few millimeters or even smaller high-tech devices, its internal structure is generally in the order of microns or even nanometers, is an independent intelligent system. It is mainly composed of three parts: sensor, actuator (actuator) and micro-energy. Mems involves physics, semiconductor, optics, electronic engineering, chemistry, materials engineering, mechanical engineering, medicine, information engineering and biological engineering and other disciplines and engineering technologies, and has opened up a wide range of applications for intelligent systems, consumer electronics, wearable devices, smart home, synthetic biology of system biotechnology and microfluidic technology. Common products include MEMS accelerometers. Its system size is several millimeters or even smaller, and its internal structure is generally in the order of micrometers or even nanometers. For example, the size of common MEMS products is generally 3mm; 1.5mm, or even smaller.With the continuous development of modern microelectronics technology, the original mechanical gyroscope can now be made very small, so small that it can be put into a mobile phone. At present, mid-to-high-end smartphones are generally equipped with MEMS inertial measurement units for navigation, function control and games.

From the above conceptual information, it is not difficult to see the difference between them, the gyroscope as the basic equipment, combined with the characteristics of the pendulum to form a gyro compass, and the gyroscope and accelerometer combined to form an IMU. The system characteristics of MENS can be combined with gyroscopes and IMU devices to form new integrated products.

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