The accelerometer is composed of detection mass (also called sensitive mass), support, potentiometer, spring, damper and housing. Constrained by the support of the test mass can only move along one axis, this axis is often called the input axis or sensitive axis. When the instrument housing moves with the carrier along the direction of the sensitive axis, according to Newton’s law, the detection mass with a certain inertia tries to keep its original motion state unchanged. A relative movement between it and the housing will cause the spring to deform, so the mass will be accelerated by the force of the spring. When the spring force is balanced with the inertial force generated during the acceleration of the detection mass, there is no longer any relative movement between the detection mass and the housing, and the deformation of the spring reflects the magnitude of the measured acceleration. As a displacement sensing element, a potentiometer converts acceleration signals into electrical signals for output. The accelerometer is essentially a one-degree-of-freedom oscillating system, and dampers must be used to improve the dynamic quality of the system.
There are many types of accelerometers: linear accelerometers are used to classify displacements based on detection mass (linear displacements are used to detect masses) and pendulum accelerometers (detection masses are rotated around support shafts); gem supports and flexible supports are classified according to support methods. , Air float, liquid float, magnetic levitation and electrostatic levitation; according to the composition of the measurement system, there are open-loop and closed-loop types; according to the working principle, there are vibrating-string, vibrating-beam, and pendulum-integrating gyro accelerometers; The number of input shafts is classified into single-axis, dual-axis, and tri-axis accelerometers. According to the sensing element, there are piezoelectric, piezoresistive, and potentiometer types. The characteristics of several different classifications are usually used to name an accelerometer.
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