The components of common accelerometers are as follows: housing (fixed to the measured object), reference quality, sensitive components, signal output devices, etc. Accelerometers require a certain amount of range and accuracy, sensitivity, etc. These requirements are often somewhat contradictory.
Accelerometers based on different principles have different ranges (from several g to hundreds of thousands of g), and their sensitivities to catastrophic acceleration frequencies are also different. Common accelerometers are based on the following principles:
1 The reference mass is connected to the housing by a spring (see figure). The relative displacement between the housing and the housing reflects the magnitude of the acceleration component. This signal is output via the potentiometer as a voltage.
2The reference mass is fixed by the elastic thin rod and the shell, the dynamic load caused by acceleration deforms the rod, the strain resistance wire senses the size of the deformation, and its output is an electrical signal proportional to the size of the acceleration sub-disk
3 The reference mass is fixedly connected to the housing through the piezoelectric element. The dynamic load of the mass exerts pressure on the piezoelectric element. The piezoelectric element outputs an electrical signal proportional to the pressure, that is, the acceleration component.
4 The reference mass is connected to the housing by the spring and placed inside the coil. The displacement that reflects the magnitude of the acceleration component changes the inductance of the coil, thereby outputting an electrical signal proportional to the acceleration.
In addition, there are servo-type accelerometers, in which a feedback loop is introduced to improve the accuracy of the measurement. In order to measure the acceleration vector in the plane or space, two or three accelerometers are required, each measuring one acceleration component.
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