Optical fiber gyroscope is an instrument that can accurately determine the orientation of moving objects. It is an inertial navigation instrument widely used in modern aviation, navigation, aerospace and national defense industries. Fiber optic gyroscope is a sensitive element based on the optical fiber coil. The light emitted by the laser diode propagates along the optical fiber in two directions. Different light propagation paths determine the angular displacement of the sensing element.
Compared with traditional mechanical gyroscope, fiber optic gyroscope has the advantages of all solid state, no rotating parts and friction parts, long service life, large dynamic range, instantaneous start, simple structure, small size and light weight. Compared with the laser gyroscope, the fiber optic gyroscope has no locking problem and does not need to accurately process the optical path in the quartz block, so the cost is relatively low.
The realization of fiber optic gyroscope is mainly based on segnick’s Theory: when the light beam travels in a circular channel, if the circular channel itself has a rotation speed, the time required for the light to travel in the direction of channel rotation is more than that in the opposite direction of channel rotation. In other words, when the optical loop rotates, the optical path of the optical loop will change relative to the optical path of the loop at rest in different directions of travel. Using this change of optical path, the phase difference of two optical paths or the change of interference fringes can be detected, and the rotation angular velocity of optical path can be measured, which is the characteristic of fiber optic gyroscope
Fiber optic gyroscopes are widely used:
1. Application in navigation
Compass is an important navigation equipment for ships, mainly including magnetic compass and electric compass. With the development of fiber optic gyroscope technology and the improvement of commercialization level, fiber optic gyroscope has become a new member of marine conduction equipment, and has been applied in commercial and military ships and marine equipment. The gyrocompass of fiber optic gyroscope based on strapdown inertial navigation system has its rotation axis corresponding to the three axes of the ship coordinate system. It can not only be used as the information source of high-precision heading to realize automatic north finding and pointing, but also obtain reliable data such as heading rotation rate, roll and pitch angles, and heading rotation rate, which further promotes the development of ship automation, and ensures the ship’s maneuvering effect and navigation safety.
2. Aerospace and space applications
High precision interferometric fiber optic gyroscopes are generally used in aerospace and space applications. The strap down inertial navigation system with IFOG as the main inertial element can provide the aircraft with three-dimensional angular velocity, position, angle of attack and sideslip angle, and realize the tracking and measurement of rocket launch,
It can also be used for spacecraft stability, photography / mapping, attitude measurement control, motion compensation, eo/flir stability, navigation and flight control. Among them, the high-precision and reliable combined attitude determination of fiber optic gyroscope and GPS has become a typical configuration of spacecraft attitude determination systems at home and abroad.
3. Military applications
Fiber optic gyroscope (FOG)is widely used in military because of its advantages in angular rate and acceleration measurement and its remarkable advantages in dynamic range, sensitivity and reliability. It can be used for positioning, orientation and navigation of tanks, submarines, self-propelled guns and armored assault vehicles; When satellite navigation cannot obtain accurate information due to strong electronic interference, fiber optic gyroscope can be used to ensure autonomous navigation, accurate guidance and accurate target hit of aircraft. At the same time, fog components are also an important part of aviation fire control system, which can be used to stabilize the line of sight and firing line of weapon systems such as armed helicopters, so as to ensure the search, aiming, tracking and firing of weapons in motion. In addition, fiber optic gyroscope is also the only effective underwater navigation technology, which can be used for submarine positioning, orientation and navigation.
In the civil field, it mainly focuses on the application of medium and low precision fiber optic gyroscope. The main applications are: automatic navigation of ground vehicles, positioning and orientation, vehicle control; Controlling the attitude of agricultural aircraft, sowing and spraying pesticides; In the maintenance of underground works, find the positioning tools and rescue tools for the location of damaged power lines, pipelines and communication optical (electric) cables; It is used for geodesy, mineral exploration, oil exploration, oil drilling guidance, tunnel construction and other positioning and path survey, as well as the use of fiber optic gyroscope rotation angle and linear displacement to achieve dam inclination measurement.
Due to its high cost, its use still has great limitations. Beixun has developed cost-effective fiber optic gyroscope products to solve this problem, which also promotes the rapid development of China’s high-precision industry. If you have any needs, please feel free to contact us: https://www.ericcointernational.com/
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