The main technologies that need to be broken through in fiber optic gyroscopes are the instability of the scale factor caused by the loss of sensitivity noise and the drift caused by fiber birefringence and the change of polarization state.
1. Loss of sensitivity
As the rotation rate approaches zero, the sensitivity disappears.This is caused by the fact that the optical density in the detector is proportional to the cosine of Sagnac phase shift.
2. Noise problem
The noise of the fiber optic gyroscope is caused by Rayleigh backscattering.In order to achieve low noise, the light source with small coherent length should be used.
3. Optical fiber birefringence caused by the drift
If two light waves traveling in opposite directions travel on different paths, they drift.The reason for the difference in optical path length is that single-mode fiber has two orthogonal polarization states, which generally propagate at different speeds.Because of the environmental influence, the two orthogonal polarization states change randomly.
4. Instability of the scale factor caused by polarization state change.
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