1, The development of miniaturization
With the development of integrated microelectromechanical processing technology, MEMS sensors introduce semiconductor processors (such as oxidation, lithography, diffusion, deposition and etching) into the manufacturing of sensors to achieve large-scale production and provide miniaturization of sensors The important technical support. In recent years, Japan, the United States, the European Union and other countries in the semiconductor devices, microsystems and microstructures, speed measurement, micro-system processing methods, equipment, microphones, speakers, level, ranging, gyroscopes, lithography process and material properties determination, Analysis and other technical areas have made important progress.
2, Intelligent upgrade
One direction is the integration of multiple sensing functions with data processing, storage, two-way communication, etc. All or part of the signal detection, transformation processing, logic judgment, function calculation, two-way communication, and internal self-test, Self-diagnosis and other functions, with low-cost, high-precision information acquisition, data storage and communication, programming automation and functional diversification.
3, Integrated architecture
Sensor integration includes two types: one is the integration of multiple sensors of the same type, that is, multiple sensor elements of the same function are arranged on the same plane by an integrated process to form a linear sensor (such as a CCD image sensor). The other is multi-functional integration, such as several different sensitive components fabricated on the same silicon, made of integrated multi-function sensor, high integration, small size, easy to achieve compensation and correction, the current sensor integration The main direction of development.
4, Mobile and portable
The key of wireless sensor network technology is to overcome the node resource constraints (energy supply, computing and communication capabilities, storage space, etc.), and to meet the sensor network scalability, fault tolerance and other requirements. At present, the research and development focuses mainly on the design, positioning technology, time synchronization technology, data fusion technology, embedded operating system technology, network security technology, energy harvesting technology and other aspects of the routing protocol. Some developed countries and cities have applied technologies in areas such as smart home, precision agriculture, forestry monitoring, military, intelligent buildings and intelligent transportation.
These four directions are the current and future trends in the development of various types of functional sensors, but also the inevitable result of enlargement. In the future, mankind must move toward the direction of the universe. Therefore, the development and updating of the above four directions of sensors are indispensable. Especially in terms of miniaturization and intelligence, it will play a decisive role in exploring the universe for mankind.