The optical loop of the laser gyroscope is actually an optical oscillator. According to the shape of the optical cavity, it is divided into a triangular gyroscope and a square gyroscope. The cavity structure has two types: component type and integral type. Generally, the triangular type laser gyroscope is used the most. The structure of a typical laser gyroscope is like this: its base is a piece of low-expansion coefficient triangular ceramic glass, on which an equilateral triangle optical cavity is processed, and the gyroscope is composed of such a closed triangular optical cavity. The long output mirror installed at each corner is defined by the control mirror and the deflection mirror, and a plasma tube filled with low-pressure helium-neon mixed gas is installed on one side of the triangle.
A gyroscope is basically a directional instrument manufactured by using the property of an object to rotate at a high speed, the angular momentum will be large, and the rotation axis will always point to one direction steadily. However, it must turn fast enough, or the inertia must be large enough (or angular momentum must be large enough). Otherwise, as long as a small torque, it will seriously affect its stability, so the gyroscopes installed in airplanes and missiles rely on internal power to keep them rotating at a high speed.
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