Capacitive micro-accelerometer is the most common, and there are also mature products. The basic principle is to use capacitance as a detection interface to detect the micro-displacement of the inertial mass caused by the inertial force. The mass block is supported and connected to the substrate by elastic microbeams. One pole plate of the detection capacitor is generally arranged on the moving mass block, and one pole plate is arranged on the fixed substrate.
A typical flat capacitive micro accelerometer with sandwich structure. Capacitive micro-accelerometer has high sensitivity and measurement accuracy, good stability, low temperature drift, extremely low power consumption, and strong overload protection; it can use electrostatic force to achieve feedback closed-loop control and significantly improve the performance of the sensor.
Capacitive MEMS accelerometer is a kind of accelerometer with higher working sensitivity, and it is also the most widely used structure. Therefore, the capacitive accelerometer is taken as an example when analyzing the MEMS accelerometer.
The sensor is small in size, light in weight, low in power consumption, fast in startup, low in cost, high in reliability, and easy to realize digitization and intelligence. Because the micro-mechanical structure is made with good accuracy and repeatability, is easy to integrate, and is suitable for mass production, its high performance-to-price ratio will dominate the acceleration sensor market.
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