When the rotor rotates at a high speed, if an external moment acts on the outer ring axis, the gyroscope will rotate around the inner ring axis; if an external moment acts on the inner ring axis, the gyroscope will rotate around the outer ring axis. The direction of its rotational angular velocity and the direction of external torque are perpendicular to each other. This characteristic is called the precession of the gyroscope. The direction of the precession angular velocity depends on the direction of the momentum moment H (which is consistent with the direction of the rotor rotation angular velocity vector) and the direction of the external moment M, and the rotation angular velocity vector catches up with the external moment by the shortest path.
This can be determined using the right-hand rule. That is, straighten the right hand, the thumb is perpendicular to the index finger, the finger is in the direction of the rotation axis, and the palm is in the positive direction of the external torque.
The magnitude of the precession angular velocity depends on the magnitude of the rotor’s momentum moment H and the magnitude of the external moment M, and its calculation formula is the precession angular velocity ω = M / H.
There are also three factors affecting the precession:
1. The greater the external force, the greater the precession angular velocity;
2. The larger the rotor’s moment of inertia, the smaller the precession angular velocity;
3. The larger the angular velocity of the rotor, the smaller the precession angular velocity.
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