By measuring the acceleration (inertia) of the aircraft and automatically performing integral calculations, the technology of obtaining the instantaneous speed and instantaneous position data of the aircraft.
In the 17th century, I. Newton studied the mechanics of high-speed rotating rigid bodies. Newton’s law of mechanics is the theoretical basis of inertial navigation. In 1852 J. Foucault called this rigid body a gyroscope, and later made a gyroscope for posture measurement. In 1906, H. Ancius made a gyro direction indicator, whose rotation axis could point in a fixed direction. In 1907, he added pendulum to the directional instrument to make a gyro compass. These achievements have become the leaders of inertial navigation systems. In 1923, M. Shura published the “Shula pendulum” theory, which solved the problem of establishing a vertical line on the motion carrier, so that the error of the accelerometer did not cause the error of the inertial navigation system to diverge, and provided a theoretical basis for the realization of inertial navigation in engineering. . In 1954, the inertial navigation system was successfully tested on an airplane. In 1958, the “Nautilus” submarine sailed under ice for 21 days through inertial navigation through the Arctic. China has been developing inertial navigation systems since 1956. Since 1970, it has adopted the inertial navigation system developed by the country on multiple launches of artificial earth satellites and rockets, as well as various aircraft.
Inertial navigation system is a kind of reckoning navigation method. That is, the position of the next point is calculated from the position of a known point based on the continuously measured heading angle and speed of the carrier. Therefore, the current position of the moving body can be continuously measured. The gyroscope in the inertial navigation system is used to form a navigation coordinate system so that the measuring axis of the accelerometer is stable in the coordinate system and gives the heading and attitude angle; the accelerometer is used to measure the acceleration of the moving body through a time integration Speed, the speed can be obtained by integrating the time once. The inertial navigation system has the following main advantages.
(1) Because it does not depend on any external information. An autonomous system that does not radiate energy to the outside. Therefore, it has good concealment and is not affected by external electromagnetic interference;
(2) It can work on the surface of the earth in the sky and even underwater all day and all over the world.
(3) It can provide position, speed, heading and attitude angle data. The generated navigation information has good continuity and low noise.
(4) High data update rate, good short-term accuracy and stability.
The disadvantages are:
(1) Due to the integration of navigation information, the positioning error increases with time, and the long-term accuracy is poor;
(2) A long initial alignment time is required before each use;
(3) The price of equipment is relatively expensive;
(4) Time information cannot be given.
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