The traditional inertial gyroscope mainly refers to the mechanical gyroscope. The mechanical gyroscope has high requirements on the process structure and the structure is complex, and its precision is restricted by many aspects. Since the 1970s, the development of modern gyroscopes has entered a new stage.
The fiber optic gyroscope is a sensitive component based on an optical fiber coil, and the light emitted by the laser diode propagates along the optical fiber in two directions. The difference in the light propagation path determines the angular displacement of the sensitive component.
Compared with the traditional mechanical gyroscope, the fiber optic gyroscope has the advantages of all solid state, no rotating parts and friction parts, long life, large dynamic range, instant start, simple structure, small size and light weight. Compared with the laser gyro, the fiber optic gyroscope has no blocking problem, and does not need to accurately process the optical path in the quartz block, and the cost is relatively low.
The implementation of the fiber optic gyroscope is mainly based on the Segnik theory: when the beam travels in an annular channel, if the ring channel itself has a rotational speed, then the time it takes for the light to travel along the direction of the channel is greater than the time it takes to travel along the channel. It takes more time to travel in the opposite direction. That is to say, when the optical loop rotates, the optical path of the optical loop changes with respect to the optical path of the loop at rest in different directions of travel. By using this change of optical path, detecting the phase difference of two optical paths or the change of interference fringes, the angular velocity of the optical path can be measured, which is the working principle of the fiber optic gyroscope.
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