The traditional mechanical gyroscope mainly uses the principle of conservation of angular momentum, that is, for a rotating object, its rotation axis direction does not change with the rotation of the support carrying it. The MEMS gyroscope mainly uses the principle of Coriolis force (tangential force on a rotating object when it is in radial motion). The disclosed micro-mechanical gyroscopes use the concept of the angular velocity of a vibrating object to sense and detect vibration Coriolis force.
The core of the MEMS gyroscope is a micro-machined mechanical unit. It is designed to resonate with a tuning fork mechanism and convert the angular rate into the displacement of a specific sensing structure through the Coriolis force principle. Taking a single-axis offset (yaw, YAW) gyroscope as an example, the simplest working principle is explored through Tully.
Two identical masses oscillate horizontally in opposite directions, as shown by the horizontal arrow. When an angular velocity is applied externally, a Coriolis force appears, and the direction of the force is perpendicular to the direction of mass movement, as shown by the vertical arrow. The resulting Coriolis force shifts the sensing mass, and the magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the magnitude of the applied angular velocity. Because the moving electrode (rotor) of the sensor’s sensing part is located on the side of the fixed electrode (stator), the above displacement will cause a capacitance change between the stator and the rotor. Therefore, the angular rate applied at the input part of the gyroscope is Transformed into an electronic parameter that can be detected by a dedicated circuit – capacitance.
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