Three Basic Positioning Principles of Navigation Systems

1. Dead reckoning, or so-called dead reckoning. It is from a known location point, according to the heading, speed and time of the moving body at that point, the location of the next location point is derived. Early gyro compasses, magnetic compasses, airspeed meters, logmeters, and navigation clocks were used to manually calculate dead reckoning on maps; inertial navigation systems are now widely used, such as Doppler navigation radars and sonars. The Doppler navigation system uses the measured speed (accelerometer) of the moving body to integrate the time and the heading data to achieve navigation and positioning. Self-prepared navigation mostly uses this principle.

2. Radio positioning. The navigation device on the moving body can measure the propagation time, phase, frequency and amplitude of electromagnetic waves by receiving navigation signals on a number of navigation reference platforms or aerial satellites built on the surface of the earth. The geometric parameters such as the angle, distance, and distance difference of the moving body with respect to the navigation table are established, so that the relative position relationship between the moving body and the navigation station is established, and the current position of the moving body is obtained.

3. Terrain-assisted navigation and positioning, also known as terrain matching. The positioning principle is that before a flying body (such as an aircraft), the terrain-aided navigation system pre-stores a three-dimensional (three-dimensional) digital terrain model of the area that the moving body will fly over, and the air pressure height on the moving body during the flight (altitude ) Comparing the relative height of the moving body measured by the radar altimeter to the surface below the ground surface to obtain the terrain profile on the ground, and comparing the stored terrain model with the measured terrain profile when they reach the match , you get the geographical location of the sports body.

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