The Principle of Laser Gyroscope

The principle of a laser gyro is to measure the angular velocity of rotation (Sagnac effect) using the optical path difference. In the closed optical path, the two light beams transmitted from the same light source in the clockwise and counterclockwise directions interferes with the light. By detecting the phase difference or the variation of the interference fringes, the angular velocity of the closed optical path can be measured. The basic components of a laser gyro are ring lasers, which consist of a closed optical path made of triangular or square quartz with one or more tubes filled with a mixture of gas (helium-neon gas), two opaque mirrors and A translucent mirror. High-frequency power or DC power to stimulate the mixed gas, monochromatic laser. In order to maintain loop resonance, the circumference of the loop should be an integer multiple of the wavelength of the light. Using a translucent mirror, the laser is led out of the circuit, the laser beam interfering with the two oppositely transmitted beams is reflected by the mirror, and a digital signal proportional to the output angle is input through the photodetector and the circuit.

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