From the laboratory to the current practical use of fiber optic gyroscopes, it has undergone a 20-year development process. In the meantime, from open-loop gyros to analog closed-loop to digital closed-loop; the detection circuit from integrated devices, to large-scale integrated circuits, to optoelectronic integrated modular design, reflects the advancement of fiber technology and semiconductor technology. With the improvement of the level and design of fiber optic gyro devices, fiber optic gyroscopes have become more and more people’s attention. Since the principle of the sensitive angular velocity of the fiber optic gyro breaks through the ancient definition of the gyroscope, it is expected that the fiber optic gyroscope can overcome the limitations of the previous electromechanical gyroscope in application, and is widely used in the inertial navigation system, especially the strapdown system. As the third-generation gyro in inertial technology, fiber optic gyros have the characteristics that mechanical gyros do not have. Fiber optic gyroscopes require only five components, and are primarily semiconductor and fiber optic devices that transmit optical fiber to sensitive angular velocity changes. Unlike mechanical gyros, it does not require any rotating parts to achieve an all-solid structure. Due to the speed of light transmission and the fast response of semiconductor devices, fiber optic gyroscopes enable fast start-up. The process characteristics of semiconductors and optical fibers determine that fiber optic gyroscopes are very suitable for mass production. The simple combination of different components and solutions can produce fiber optic gyroscopes with different precisions to meet the needs of different application backgrounds. Therefore, fiber optic gyroscopes have the following inherent characteristics: all solid state structure High reliability, long life; fast starting speed, short response time; large measuring range, wide dynamic range; impact resistance, vibration, chemical corrosion resistance; small size, light weight, low cost; suitable for mass production.
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