The working mechanism of the inertial navigation system is based on Newton’s classical mechanics. It is a self-service navigation method. It completely relies on the airborne equipment to complete the navigation task autonomously, does not need any external electromagnetic signals, and does not radiate energy to the outside. It can independently give the attitude, speed and position information of the carrier, and has strong anti-interference ability, so it has a good Concealment. Its working environment includes not only air, earth surface, but also underwater, in aviation, navigation, rockets, missiles, space navigation and other aspects.
At present, pure inertial navigation system can meet the requirements of medium and short range navigation accuracy, but it can not meet the requirements of remote navigation and higher precision navigation such as weapon throwing, reconnaissance and anti-submarine. The main reason is that the inertial navigation system has the characteristics of error accumulation and large drift, and the positioning error will continue to increase with the continuation of time. Therefore, external information for correction is required for long-time navigation. These limitations determine that inertial navigation cannot work accurately for long periods of time, and this is exactly what GPS has.
The main purpose of combining GPS and inertial navigation into a system is to improve navigation accuracy and reliability. This combination method overcomes their shortcomings, complements each other, makes the integrated navigation accuracy higher than the accuracy of the two systems working alone, and realizes real-time and high-precision navigation and positioning in a complex environment with high dynamics and strong interference. Is a relatively complete navigation system.
The main advantages are reflected in:
1. Improve system accuracy. For the inertial navigation system, the calibration of the inertial sensor, the aerial alignment of the inertial navigation system, the stability of the height channel, etc. can be realized, thereby effectively improving the performance and accuracy of the inertial navigation system;
2. Strengthen the dynamic performance and anti-interference ability of the system. For the GPS global positioning system, the assistance of the inertial navigation system can improve its ability to track satellites, improve the dynamic performance and anti-interference of the receiver, and improve reliability. At the same time, the fast capture capability of the GPS receiver when the signal is turned on and the capture performance after the signal loss due to the attitude maneuver (occlusion) are improved.
3. Realize integration and reduce non-synchronization errors. The GPS/INS combination system can be integrated, and the GPS receiver can be placed in the inertial navigation component, which can further reduce the volume, weight and cost of the system, and facilitate the synchronization of the inertial navigation and the GPS, and reduce the non-synchronization error.
In short, the GPS/INS combination system can constitute an ideal navigation system and is the main direction of the development of navigation technology.
At present, the development trend of GPS/INS combination system is: improve the anti-interference performance of GPS system, improve the reliability of GPS/INS combination guidance; develop new INS system to improve the accuracy of GPS/INS combination guidance; research data fusion technology, further Improve the performance of GPS/INS combined guidance.
Although the GPS/INS combination system is still under development, the GPS and INS in the GPS/INS combination system are complementary and mutually improved one-piece integrated system with high positioning accuracy, good reliability and strong performance. The advantages are obvious and the application field is broader, which will be a key direction of navigation research.
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