The technique or method of guiding a carrier from a starting point to a destination is called navigation. The information provided by the navigation system mainly includes attitude, orientation, speed and position, and even acceleration and angular rate. This information can be used for correct manipulation of the carrier. And control. With the development of technology, there are more and more types of navigation systems, such as inertial navigation system, satellite navigation system, magnetic compass, odometer/Doppler velocimeter/airspeed meter, barometric altimeter/radar altimeter, landmark point /Map matching, etc. These navigation systems have their own characteristics, advantages and disadvantages. For example, the advantages of the inertial navigation system are strong autonomy, good dynamic performance, comprehensive navigation information and high output frequency, but the disadvantage is that the error accumulates over time and the long-term accuracy is poor. Satellite navigation The advantage of the system is that the precision is high and the error does not increase with time. The disadvantage is that the navigation information is not comprehensive enough, the frequency band is narrow, the signal is easily interfered, and the satellite signal is not received in an indoor environment and cannot be used. In many tasks that are critical to navigation performance, whether it is high precision or high reliability requirements, any single navigation system may not meet the requirements. This requires the use of multiple navigation systems to simultaneously measure the navigation information of the vehicle. All measurement information is comprehensively processed (including detection, combination, correlation and estimation) to obtain more accurate and reliable navigation results. This technique of comprehensively processing a variety of navigation information is called integrated navigation technology. From the above description of the advantages and disadvantages of inertial navigation and satellite navigation, it can be seen that the performance of the two has very strong complementarity, so inertial/satellite integrated navigation is recognized as the best integrated navigation scheme.

Kalman filters are generally used in the design of integrated navigation systems. The earliest and most successful application examples of Kalman filters are in the field of navigation. When Kalman visited the NASA Ames Research Center in 1960, Stanley Schmidt discovered that the Kalman filtering method was useful for resolving the orbit prediction of the Apollo program. Later, the navigation system of the Apollo moon landing spacecraft The Kalman filter is used, and Schmidt is generally considered to implement the Kalman filter for the first time. In addition, the United States uses Kalman filters on space shuttles, submarines, and unmanned aerial vehicles such as cruise missiles.

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