A Brief History of Inertial Navigation

The technique of obtaining the instantaneous velocity and instantaneous position data of the aircraft by measuring the acceleration (inertia) of the aircraft and automatically performing integral calculation.

In the 17th century, I. Newton studied the mechanics of high-speed rotating rigid bodies. Newton’s laws of mechanics are the theoretical basis of inertial navigation. In 1852, J. Foucault called this rigid body a gyro, which was later made into a gyroscope for attitude measurement. In 1906, H. Amhertz made a gyro direction meter whose self-rotating axis could point in a fixed direction. In 1907 he added pendulum to the steering instrument and made it into a gyro compass. These results have become the forerunner of inertial navigation systems. In 1923, M. Shula published the “Sura pendulum” theory, which solved the problem of establishing a vertical line on the motion carrier, so that the error of the accelerometer did not cause the divergence of the inertial navigation system error, which provided a theoretical basis for the realization of inertial navigation in engineering. . In 1954, the inertial navigation system was successfully tested on the aircraft. In 1958, the “Squid” submarine sailed through the North Pole for 21 days under inertia. China began to develop inertial navigation systems in 1956. Since 1970, it has adopted domestically developed inertial navigation systems on artificial satellites and rockets that have been launched multiple times, as well as on various aircraft.

Inertial navigation system is a kind of calculation navigation method. That is, the position of the next point is derived from the position of a known point based on the continuously measured heading angle and velocity of the carrier. Therefore, the current position of the moving body can be continuously measured. The gyroscope in the inertial navigation system is used to form a navigation coordinate system to stabilize the measurement axis of the accelerometer in the coordinate system and give the heading and attitude angles; the accelerometer is used to measure the acceleration of the moving body and obtain an integral of time. Speed, speed and then an integral of time to get the distance. The inertial navigation system has the following main advantages. (1) Since it is not dependent on any external information. An autonomous system that does not radiate energy to the outside. Therefore, it is concealed and is not affected by external electromagnetic interference; (2) It can work on the surface of the earth and even underwater under the global and full time. (3) It can provide position, speed, heading and attitude angle data, and the generated navigation information has good continuity and low noise. (4) High data update rate, short-term accuracy and stability. The disadvantages are: (1) because the navigation information is generated by integration, the positioning error increases with time, and the long-term accuracy is poor; (2) a longer initial alignment time is required before each use; (3) the price of the device is relatively low. Expensive; (4) can not give time information.

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